A punnett square is a diagram which depicts the possibility of what your offspring may look like. Regniald Punnett founded this chart and the name of it orginated from his last name. The female gamete cells are always on top of the table. The male gamete cells are always on the left of the table. The punnett square can be used for different organisms, some are flowers, peas and animals. The diagram is used to guess the outcome of a certain cross or a breeding experiment.

 A phenotype is your physical appearance and traits and genotype is your genetic set up. In the above picture, you can see the baby's phenotype and its outside characteristics. You can see his phenotype has blonde hair and blue eyes. However you are not able to see his genotype, unless you examine the baby's bloodtype, DNA, genes, etc.

Heredity is when you pass down traits through generations. This process is when the offspring's cell or organism gets or turns predisposed to the traits of its parent's cell or characteristics. This study of heredity in biology is genetics. This includes the field of epigenetics .

 Test crosses are in the subject of heredity. Test crosses are the mating of individuals of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype to an individual with a homozygous recessive genotype. Heterozygous means one lower case and one upper case and homozygous is the exact opposite. With codominance, the offspring has a 3rd phenotype which both parental traits appear together. And incomplete dominance, is blending of parental traits.  

Gregor Mendel is the father of genetics. He was a monk/priest which testcrossed pea plants. Gregor Mendel was born in July 20 1822. He was austrian-hungrarian and born into an ethnic German family.


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